|About Ron Ridenour|
RUSSIAN PEACE THREAT: Pentagon on
CIA Complot murders JFK over Cuba
Get blamed for everything since 2016, even the murder of President John F. Kennedy.
“Did Russia Kill a U.S. President? New CIA Documents Reveal Spy’s Theory About JFK’s Death,”
So read Newsweek’s headline of July 27, 2017. The article cites just released CIA documents referring to Lt. Col. Yuri Nosenko, a KGB defector to the CIA, in 1964.
CIA’s then Chief of Counter-Intelligence James Angleton imprisoned Nosenko in a secret jail between August 13, 1965 and October 27, 1967. There was only a cot in a small cell and never a visitor, other than interrogators. Angleton suspected Nosenko of knowing that Lee Harvey Oswald was connected with Soviet Union’s KGB, though it maintained it had not recruited Oswald, because he was “mentally unstable.”
Nosenko was exonerated in 1969. CIA Director Stansfield Turner (1972-4)
said he had been mishandled by the CIA. Furthermore, the Newsweek story
has nothing new, as the matter was in the public domain for many years.
Nevertheless, Newsweek insinuates that Nosenko was a KGB mole sent to
mislead the CIA from learning that it used Oswald to kill Kennedy. Newsweek
claims that Oswald murdered Kennedy and therefore the Russian government
was behind it.
Newsweek’s main source for this assumption is an online news site, Muckrock. Newsweek writes:
“Intense debate exists to this day as to whether Nosenko was still working for Moscow under CIA captivity or not and whether he did successfully cover up some degree of Soviet involvement in Oswald’s killing of Kennedy, a theory government transparency organization MuckRock determined could not be ruled out based on the CIA’s investigation.”
Well, if that theory couldn’t be “ruled out” are we to assume it is proof that Russia murdered America’s charming president? Can one rule anything out about CIA’s investigations and lies?
What is MuckRock? See https://www.muckrock.com/news/archives/2017/jul/10/cia-nosenko-logic/https://www.muckrock.com/about/
As a member of Global Investigative Journalism Network, it is associated with George Soros, who is the founder of one of its main financial sponsors, Open Society Foundations. Soros established his philanthropic enterprise—spending to date $11 billion—“to help countries make the transition from Communism.” One of them is Ukraine where he is heavily involved to bring it into EU and NATO, laying the basis for war with Russia. We come to that in chapter sixteen. https://www.opensocietyfoundations.org/about
Nevertheless, it would be cheap to discredit MuckRock alone for that nefarious association. The main problem with its’ theory and Newsweek’s article comes as the end of the magazine’s story.
“Despite Angleton's suspicions, the CIA and the FBI do not
believe that the Soviet Union played a role in Kennedy's assassination
and have concluded that Oswald acted alone.”
The damage was done, however, as many media picked up the Newsweek headline, spreading the message: Russia is the culprit. The mass media, in keeping with the CIA-led Deep State, systematically spreads lies and “disinformation” to cover-up for what Noam Chomsky calls United States’ The Culture of Terrorism (Boston: South End Press, 1988, pages 1 and 21).
“The central—and not very surprising—conclusion that emerges from the documentary and historical records is that U.S. international and security policy, rooted in the structure of power in the domestic society, has as its primary goal the preservation of what we might call the ‘Fifth Freedom’, understood crudely but with a fair degree of accuracy as the freedom to rob, to exploit and to dominate, to undertake any course of action to ensure that existing privilege is protected and advanced.”…“The doctrine of willful self-ignorance is so deeply rooted that it can efface [any facts that contradict] “that the U.S. is Good, its leaders are Good, the facts are irrelevant, no matter how prominently displayed.”
The real murderers of their own president must be covered up to protect the Fifth Freedom (1).
Thousands of books have been written about the assassination; hundreds assert that the conspirators were top CIA officials and operators, Mafia bosses and their hit men, along with Cuban exiles (gusanos) under CIA control, some of whom were involved in the Bay of Pigs.
Even the House Select Committee on Assassinations, after a lengthy probe which included public hearings, determined in 1979 that JFK was “likely” killed as the result of a conspiracy.
President Richard Nixon’s chief of staff H. R. Haldeman, who served 18 months in prison for his role with Nixon in Watergate, wrote in his autobiography, The Haldeman Diaries: Inside the Nixon White House (New York. G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1994):
“In all those Nixon references to the Bay of Pigs he was actually referring to the Kennedy assassination.” The President said he was most worried about E. Howard Hunt, because he had been arrested for leading the Watergate break-in. Hunt “will uncover a lot of things—the whole Bay of Pigs thing,” which included the assassination of Kennedy.
Rolling Stone writer Erik Hedegaard reported on April 5, 2007 about
this in, “The Last Confession of E. Howard Hunt: The ultimate
keeper of secrets regarding who killed JFK.” http://www.rollingstone.com/culture/features/the-last-confession-of-e-howard-hunt-20070405
Hunt was a key CIA figure in the Bay of Pigs, and the 1954 coup against Guatemala’s President Jacobo Arbenz. He was imprisoned 33 months for the Watergate break-in. In deathbed talks with his son, St. John Hunt, E. Hunt named several other CIA operatives involved: David Atlee Phillips, Frank Sturgis, Cord Meyer, David Morales, William Harvey, and Mafia hit man Lucien Sarti. He minimized his own involvement, and suggested Lyndon B. Johnson spearheaded the cover-up.
While dying in a hospital, Hunt wrote down who killed Kennedy and gave the paper to his son. (Hunt died January 23, 2007). Rolling Stone wrote about it this way:
“E. Howard scribbled the initials ‘LBJ,’ standing for Kennedy's ambitious vice president, Lyndon Johnson. Under ‘LBJ,’ connected by a line, he wrote the name Cord Meyer. Meyer was a CIA agent whose wife had an affair with JFK; later she was murdered, a case that's never been solved. Next his father connected to Meyer's name the name Bill Harvey, another CIA agent; also connected to Meyer's name was the name David Morales, yet another CIA man and a well-known, particularly vicious black-op specialist. And then his father connected to Morales' name, with a line, the framed words ‘French Gunman Grassy Knoll.’
“So there it was, according to E. Howard Hunt. LBJ had Kennedy
killed. It had long been speculated upon. But now E. Howard was saying
that’s the way it was. And that Lee Harvey Oswald wasn’t
the only shooter in Dallas. There was also, on the grassy knoll, a French
gunman, presumably the Corsican Mafia assassin Lucien Sarti, who has
figured prominently in other assassination theories.”
“Later that week, E. Howard also gave Saint two sheets of paper that contained a fuller narrative. It starts out with LBJ again, connecting him to Cord Meyer, then goes on: "Cord Meyer discusses a plot with Phillips who brings in Wm. Harvey and Antonio Veciana. He meets with Oswald in Mexico City.... Then Veciana meets w/ Frank Sturgis in Miami and enlists David Morales in anticipation of killing JFK there. But LBJ changes itinerary to Dallas, citing personal reasons.”
“In the next few paragraphs, E. Howard goes on to describe the extent of his own involvement. It revolves around a meeting he claims he attended, in 1963, with Morales and Sturgis. It takes place in a Miami hotel room. Here's what happens:
“Morales leaves the room at which point Sturgis makes reference to a ‘Big Event’, and asks E. Howard, ‘Are you with us’ [in] ‘Killing JFK’. E. Howard, ‘incredulous,’ says to Sturgis, ‘You seem to have everything you need. Why do you need me?’ In the handwritten narrative, Sturgis’ response is unclear, though what E. Howard says to Sturgis next isn’t: He says he won't ‘get involved in anything involving Bill Harvey, who is an alcoholic psycho.’”
Hedegaard adds that a few weeks after these talks, Hunt’s son received in the mail, “a tape recording from his dad. E. Howard’s voice on the cassette is weak and grasping, and he sometimes wanders down unrelated pathways. But he essentially remakes the same points he made in his handwritten narrative.”
Among other sources I use concerning the murder of the president are:
Family Jewels https://www.cia.gov/library/readingroom/docs/DOC_0001451843.pdf
This 702-page CIA report includes many of the Company’s “skeletons”, which were released on June 25, 2007 after a 15-year struggle by the National Security Archive. The report includes many assassination attempts on the life of Fidel Castro, and other mob-CIA-Cuban paramilitary connections. The CIA abuse of KGB defector Nosenko is there as well.
Double Cross: The explosive, inside story of the mobster who controlled America written by Chuck and Samuel M. Giancana (New York: Warner Books, March 1992, hardback). This book is an as-told-to account by Chicago Mafia Boss Sam (Salvatore) Giancana, aka “Mooney” and “Momo”. Chuck is Mooney’s brother, whose son Samuel is the Mobster’s nephew, godson and namesake.
ZR Rifle: The Plot to Kill Kennedy and Castro by Claudia Furiati
(Australia: Ocean Press, 1997). This book names the players,
many of whom are those that Sam Giancana related. Furiati relies heavily
on interviews with the former head of Cuba’s State Security Department
(DSE), General Fabian Escalante. The DSE knowledge is largely based
on its double agents inside the CIA and several Cuban exile terrorist
groups working within the CIA. My book, Backfire: The CIA’s Biggest
Burn (Havana: José Martí Publishing House, 1991) portrays
what 27 of these double agents learned.
General Escalante says that operatives and plotters in the Kennedy assassination worked directly under Richard Helms, who directed Operation Mongoose and Operation 40 under President Eisenhower and Kennedy. For Helms’ dedication to service, President Johnson later appointed him CIA chief. One of Helms’ key CIA accomplices in the invasion and continued subversion against Cuba, and Kennedy assassination operator, was David Atlee Phillips. He considered Cuba’s intelligence agency as one of the world's most efficient security services.
They Killed Our President by Jess Ventura (New York: Skyhorse Publishing, 2013). Ventura is a former governor of Minnesota. He wrote: “John F. Kennedy was murdered by a conspiracy involving disgruntled CIA agents, anti-Castro Cubans, and members of the Mafia, all of whom were extremely angry at what they viewed as Kennedy's appeasement policies toward Communist Cuba and the Soviet Union.”
Who Really Killed Kennedy by Jerome R. Corsi (WND books and Internet news daily, 2013). In its release of the book, WND wrote: “Was the JFK assassination a revenge killing masterminded by CIA Director Allen Dulles?”
“Corsi’s extensive research shows JFK may have signed his death warrant the day he fired Dulles, accusing his spy chief of lying and manipulating him in the Bay of Pigs fiasco.
“At a Jan. 22, 1961 meeting of Secretary of State Dean Rusk; Secretary of Defense Robert Mac Namara; Attorney General Robert Kennedy; Army General Lyman Lemnitzer, the chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff [also Operation Northwoods]; and various national security and foreign policy experts, Dulles stressed that the U.S. had only two months ‘before something had to be done about’ the Cubans being trained covertly by the CIA in Guatemala.”
The CIA knew it had Kennedy over a barrel, because of his aggressive election campaign statements claiming that Nixon was doing nothing about Communist Cuba and that he, Kennedy, would be a better anti-communist president. This virtually set him up to be blackmailed by Richard Bissell and Nixon, top proponents from the beginning of a Cuba invasion plan.
Bissell had been the Deputy Director of Plans in charge of the Bay
of Pigs operation. The DDP was also involved in overthrowing and/or
assassinating many heads of government: Guatemala President Jacobo Arbenz
Guzmán, Congo’s Patrice Lumumba, Dominican Republic’s
Rafael Leonidas Trujillo, South Vietnam’s Ngo Dinh Diem. Fidel
was to be the star trophy.
After the invasion fiasco, Kennedy pushed Bissell to resign in February 1962. Kennedy had already fired the chief, D/CIA Allen Dulles on November 29, 1961. The number two CIA man, Air Force Lt. General Charles Cabell, was ousted two days later. He never forgave Kennedy for that.
Based upon congressional investigations, several articles and books, Wikipedia wrote that Bissell and Dulles met with Mafia men in September 1960: [They] “initiated talks with two leading figures of the Mafia, Johnny Roselli and Sam Giancana. Later, other crime bosses such as Carlos Marcello, Santo Trafficante Jr. and Meyer Lansky became involved in this first plot against Castro. The strategy was managed by [Colonel] Sheffield Edwards and Robert Maheu”—a veteran of CIA counter-espionage activities who was instructed to offer the Mafia $150,000 to kill Fidel Castro. “The advantage of employing the Mafia for this work was that it provided CIA with a credible cover story. The Mafia was known to be angry with Castro for closing down their profitable brothels and casinos in Cuba. If the assassins were killed or captured the media would accept that the Mafia were working on their own. The Mafia played along in order to get protection from the FBI.”
Kennedy was narrowly elected to the presidency in November 1960 with Mafia financial and voting support; plus other big money interests. Although the Kennedys were rich every U.S. president must collaborate with big money else they would never have enough money to win an election.
What follows is taken from Double Speak. Background on JFK’s father Joseph can be substantiated by many credible sources for readers who doubt a mobster and his family’s account.
JFK’s father was part of the organized crime cartel during alcohol
prohibition days, in the 1920s. Joe Kennedy got rich running rum and
raw sugar for alcohol production, much of which came from or through
Cuba. He was indebted to the mob, and connected to Chicago capo Giancana
in establishing the Chicago Merchandise Mart.
Besides the illegal money business, Joe Kennedy was indebted to Giancana for personal reasons. Joe enlisted his aid in getting the records annulled of his son John’s first marriage. Mooney had his associate John Roselli take care of that. The woman was a socialite, Durie (Kerr) Malcolm, who had been married twice before marrying John Kennedy in 1947. The Kennedys deny this, and well known “Washington Post” editor Ben Bradlee debunked the notion. Nevertheless, Pulitzer Prize-winning investigative reporter Seymour M. Hersh gave credence to the marriage in his 1997 book, The Dark Side of Camelot.
The next favor Giancana performed was to get Joe out of a deal with New York capo Frank Costello, a payment for past favors. The elder Kennedy wanted out, because he feared these dealings would ruin his son’s political career.
Giancana met with Joe, in May 1956, at Chicago’s Ambassador East Hotel. Giancana agreed to help Joe for favors in return for something. Joe Kennedy told Sam Giancana: “If my son is elected President he’ll be your man. My son, the President of the United States, will owe you his father’s life. He won’t refuse you, ever. You have my word.” (Double Cross, page 230)
We’ve all seen enough Mafia thriller films to know that the mob
is very sticky about keeping personal promises. And Joe was now in Giancana’s
debt for life. Giancana kept his promise. He got capo Costello to drop
his demand, and he pulled out the ropes for Kennedy’s election.
He forced his unionist partners to turn out for Kennedy in the 1959-60
campaign. He influenced his buddy, Chicago Mayor Richard Daley to back
Kennedy. John Kennedy even went along with his father to some meetings
with Giancana during the election campaign. Giancana arranged for dead
persons to vote, arranged multiple voters, and applied muscle at the
When Illinois went to Kennedy, Richard Nixon called for a recount. The first recount showed that Nixon had actually won Illinois by 4500 votes but, according to Giancana, the mob pressured Nixon to concede, and that stopped the electoral officialdom from going further with the recount. Nixon was already in debt to the mob, among other things for its attempts on Castro’s life. The mob assured Nixon his time would come in the White House, a promise kept in 1968.
Giancana arranged through Frank Sinatra for one of his lovers, Judith Campbell, to become Kennedy’s mistress. He later boasted to Campbell that he had put her boyfriend in office. The fact that the President of the United States was fucking one of the capo’s mistresses irritated J. Edgar Hoover. The FBI boss had Campbell’s and Kennedy’s telephones and residences under surveillance, as well as her comings and goings in the White House. Hoover confronted Kennedy about this “illicit affair” and demanded he end it “for the sake of the nation”. Kennedy obeyed.
Following the end of this affair, Mooney arranged for Marilyn Monroe to meet Kennedy. JKF went bananas for her and so did Bobby. Giancana also fucked Monroe, nevertheless he had her murdered, in order to force both Kennedys to stop prosecuting mobsters. Mooney even names the two hit men: “Needles” Gianola and “Mugsy” Tortorella. They came to her home shortly after Bobby Kennedy left her on the evening of August 4, 1962, and inserted a Nembutal suppository into her anus. Nembutal is an untraceable poisonous drug, making it appear that she overdosed herself. (Double Cross, pg. 313-5)
Despite this murder “warning”, the Kennedys did not stop “badgering” the mobsters. Giancana felt personally betrayed by the Kennedys for using their powers to harass him and his co-capos, which was also hurting their lucrative businesses. The Kennedys were also costing other rich men, not only mobsters, too much money. So, the mob formed part of the triad that killed John Kennedy.
Giancana told his brother and nephew: “On November 22, 1963, the United States had a coup; it’s that simple. The government of this country was overthrown by a handful of guys who did their job so damned well…not one American even knew it happened. But I know. I know I’ve guaranteed the Outfit’s future.” (page 336).
New Orleans District Attorney James Garrison also believed the CIA and Mafia with Cuban exiles killed President Kennedy. He tried one of them, New Orleans businessman Clay Shaw, for his involvement but lost the case. Garrison wrote three books on the assassination and he is the main inspiration for Oliver Stone’s 1991 film, “JFK”.
Garrison believed that the conspiracy was discussed at a May 1963 meeting
of the “Friends of Democratic Cuba”, in New Orleans. Among
those he named were: Carlos Prió (Cuba president from 1948 until
deposed in a coup led by Batista in 1952), Orlando Bosch, Guillermo
Novo Sampol, Eladio del Valle and Hermino Díaz García.
Two of the conspirators, David Ferrie and Eladio del Valle, were murdered
before they could testify in the New Orleans trial.
Giancana states that earlier, in March, he had John Roselli arrange a meeting for him with General Charles Cabell, former FBI agents Guy Banister and Bob Mahue to plan the assassination. After Kennedy fired Cabell, he went to work for Mahue, who was Howard Hughes detective and chief of Hughes Nevada operations.
Giancana named his own trigger men: Paul James, Lewis McWillie, Red Dorfman, Allen Dorfman, Chuck Nicoletti and Milwaukee Phil; plus New Orleans Mafia boss Carlos Marcello and his gunmen Jack Lawrence and Charles Harrelson. Miami capo Santos Trafficante was a key player too. He and Meyer Lansky were the main Havana casino owners, and they hated Castro and Kennedy equally. Giancana said the CIA put in policemen as actual gunmen: Roscoe White and J.D. Tippit, the latter was killed by somebody but not Oswald on the fateful day.
Frank Sturgis (Fiorini) and Richard Cain were with Giancana’s
men and the CIA. Giancana said the conspiracy went up to the top of
the CIA and “half dozen fanatical right-wing Texans, Vice President
Lyndon Johnson, and the Bay of Pigs Action Officer under Eisenhower,
Richard Nixon.” (Double Cross, pages 333-6).
Sturgis led a strange and dangerous life. He served in the Second World War as a Marine, then as a policeman. In 1954, he worked with the CIA in its Guatemalan coup d’état. He and Jack Youngblood arranged to free the imprisoned General Carlos Castillo Armas, who had been jailed for treason by the social democratic Arbenz government. The U.S. picked Armas as president after the coup. Sturgis is next heard about running guns to the Cuban guerrillas during the revolution and training guerrillas, then as a pilot under Fidel Castro’s leadership. He was regarded as Fidel’s “favorite Yankee”. Not only did Fidel appoint him chief of air force security, but also in charge of security for the Havana casinos. They had been immediately closed down upon the revolutionary victory, but were reopened under government control until September 29, 1961 when all gambling was outlawed, and prostitutes and other casino employees were offered education and jobs.
For reasons unknown to me, Sturgis switched sides and joined forces
with the CIA in plots to murder Castro. According to one of Fidel’s
lovers, German-born Marita Lorenz, Sturgis used her to put poison pills
in Castro’s food, in January 1960. She later testified that she
had a change of heart and refused. Lorenza has also testified about
knowing that Sturgis, Oswald and others were connected with JFK’s
murder. Sturgis was a close associate of E. Howard Hunt and he ran Oswald.
Sturgis spent 14 months in prison for the Watergate break-in.
Three years after he was arrested as a Watergate burglar, Sturgis told Senate investigators he was a CIA agent who would do anything for the agency—even kill. He bragged that his reputation as a hit man led the FBI to grill him as a prime suspect in the JFK assassination. https://www.maryferrell.org/showDoc.html?docId=111666&relPageId=1&search=Frank_Sturgis%20JFK%20assassin https://www.maryferrell.org/pages/Confession_of_Howard_Hunt.html?search=frank%20sturgis
Most of these assassins mentioned by Garrison and Giancana were also on the list of Cuba’s chief of security, General Fabian Escalante.
CIA: General Charles Cabell, Richard Helms, David Atlee Phillips,
E. Howard Hunt, Frank Sturgis, Clay Shaw, Gerry Patrick Hemming(on contract),
Guy Banister (FBI but also possibly tied to CIA), and Lee Harvey Oswald
(provocateur and patsy, who also had ties with the FBI). Gen. Escalante
added David Yaras and Lenny Patrick, and defected Cuban pilot Pedro
Luis Díaz Lang as hit men.
Special mention about Phillips is appropriate. He ran Anthony Veciana of Alpha 66. Veciana was probably not directly involved in the JFK murder but he knew about it. Veciana confirmed to the House Select Committee on Assassinations that Bishop (code name for Phillips) was his case officer in the plot to murder Fidel in Chile, in October 1974, with a trick gun hidden inside a camera—one of his three attempts.
Jack Anderson quoted Veciana in a “San Francisco Chronicle” article, January 20, 1977: “It was a very similar plan to the assassination of Kennedy because the person Bishop assigned to kill Castro was going to get planted with papers to make it appear he was a Moscow/Castro agent turned traitor, and then he himself would be killed.”
Air Force generals Cabell and Curtis LeMay, and other key generals, were livid with Kennedy over the loss of retaking Cuba, no matter the risk of nuclear world war. After Kennedy refused to order second air attacks on Cuba during the April invasion, Cabell went around Washington calling the President “a traitor.”
After Kennedy fired Cabell, the general was playing golf with his close
friend, former Vice-President Nixon. They often played golf, and during
one foursome they agreed to a scheme to flood Cuba with counterfeit
peso currency, in order to “blow the Cuban economy off the face
of the map,” recounted engineer Robert D. Morrow. The engineer
was employed at Comcor, a CIA proprietary. The counterfeit operation
was his idea. Kennedy disapproved of the plan, so the CIA channeled
their “private” money for the operation. Kennedy instructed
his brother to apprehend all Cuban and US American personnel engaged
in manufacturing bogus Cuban currency. Castro was informed and he ordered
new currency printed in Czechoslovakia, thus averting the subversion.
Secret Service agents arrested Morrow and two others on October 2, 1963
for conspiracy to counterfeit the currency of a foreign government.
Cabell was again furious with the “traitor” president. It was only six weeks before he would no longer be a problem. Cabell’s brother, Earle, was a big help in the executive action cover up since he was the mayor of Dallas.
President Kennedy’s attempt to shorten the Vietnam War without victory was the last straw for Cabell and other generals.
In the last months of Kennedy’s life, he realized that the Vietnam War, which he also inherited from the Eisenhower-Nixon administration, was going badly and without the use of atomic weapons could not be won. As a political leader for big capital, he could not risk spending billions and billions on a war that would be lost, nor would he risk world annihilation in a nuclear war with the Soviet Union and China. He was willing to cool down international conflicts with the communist world, in order to avoid a nuclear holocaust. He was, of course, a supporter of capitalism against socialism, but he was also realistic. Unlike most presidents, he could study. This brought him into conflict with many capitalists and their military-intelligence representatives in government.
Kennedy initiated a double track policy toward Vietnam, as he had recently begun with Cuba. He enacted budget cuts for war machinery, which nearly bankrupt Bell Helicopter and General Dynamics. Napalm producer Dow Chemical, Lockheed and other aircraft companies were also anxious about war de-escalation and détente. Hughes Aircraft Corporation was servicing the CIA on a worldwide basis, its largest private contractor. Hughes’ $6 billion non-competitive contract included supplying CIA spy satellites. Hughes’ vast corporation was stocked with former CIA and Pentagon officials. He was also a major contractor for NASA satellites. Hughes instructed Maheu to tell Pentagon generals “to keep the Vietnam war going” so that he could sell more aircraft.
U.S. archives leaked in June 2005 show that Kennedy had his ambassador to India, John Kenneth Galbraith, contact the North Vietnamese government in April 1962. Peace negotiations were an issue. Another peace-seeking contact occurred in January 1963. Soon thereafter, Kennedy memo 263 calls for the beginning of troop withdrawal. At that time there were about 16,000 military “advisors” in Vietnam.
Quite ironically, Fidel Castro was conversing with the French director of “Le Nouvel Observateur”, Jean Daniel, when a Castro assistant told them of Kennedy’s murder. Fidel spontaneously said: “This is bad for Cuba.” When told that Johnson had just been sworn in as President, Fidel asked: “What authority does he exercise over the CIA?”
In 2005, Fidel told Ignacio Ramonet (Fidel Castro My Life, the English 2006 Penguin edition) that Kennedy had sent a message to him though Daniel.
“In this way, a communication was being established that perhaps
could have been favorable to improving our relations.” “His
death hurt me. He was an adversary but I felt his disappearance greatly…I
experienced indignation, repudiation, pain…”
That evening in Paris, the new CIA chief of Cuban Task Force W, Desmond Fitzgerald, and another CIA officer met with Rolando Cubela, a Castro official turned CIA agent. Earlier, on September 7, Fitzgerald had arranged with Cubela to prepare an “inside job”. Cubela was assigned the code name AMLASH. Deputy Director Helms was in on the plan. The new Director John McCone was not told about it. He had assured Attorney General Kennedy that all Cuban assassination plans were off.
One year after JFK’s murder, Cubela asked the CIA to give him a silencer for a FAL rifle to be used to kill Castro. Desmond Fitzgerald brought in Manuel Artime, Howard Hunt’s man, and his amphibious team of saboteurs. Artime and Cubela boasted that they would share power in a new junta. The CIA furnished $100,000 for this plan. Artime provided Cubela with a silencer and explosives. The plot had to be postponed as there were too many loose ends and suspicions. On February 28, 1966, Havana security police arrested Cubela and six others for plotting to kill Castro. During their trial a Cuban double agent, Juan Feliafel, came out to reveal how he fooled the CIA, and was able to learn what the anti-Cuban paramilitaries were up to. He discovered the AMLASH plot. The conspirators were found guilty. Cubela shouted that he wanted to be executed, but Castro intervened. During the subsequent 25 year sentence, Castro sent Cubela books.
When President Johnson was informed of the AMLASH operation he is quoted as saying: “We were running a goddamn Murder, Inc. in the Caribbean.”
In a lengthy “The Atlantic” magazine interview, “Last Days of the President: LBJ in Retirement”, July 1973, author Leo Jones writes: “The talk turned to President Kennedy, and Johnson expressed his belief that the assassination in Dallas had been part of a conspiracy…”’I never believed that Oswald acted alone, although I can accept that he pulled the trigger.’" https://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/1973/07/the-last-days-of-the-president/376281/
Johnson contradicted himself. He had appointed Chief of the Supreme Court Earl Warren to head the commission investigation into the JFK assassination with the singular purpose to conclude that it was Oswald alone who did the dirty deed and there was no conspiracy.
Witnesses Drop Like Flies
Many witnesses to the assassination reported that bullets came from various areas indicating more than one person did the shooting. Eighteen material witnesses died within three years of the events. The actuarial odds of such a string of deaths to a single event in that amount of time was calculated by an actuarial firm hired by the London Sunday Times to be 100,000 trillion to one.
Six were killed by gun fire, one’s throat was slit with a knife,
another was killed by a karate chop, three died in car accidents, two
by supposed suicides, three by heart attack and two by other “natural
These are some of the victims: Karyn Kupicinet, TV host’s daughter who was overheard telling of JFK’s murder to be before it happened; Rose Cheramie who knew in advance and told of Oswald riding to Dallas with Cuban exiles; Gary Underhill, a CIA agent who claimed the Agency was involved; Dorothy Kilgallen, a columnist who had a private interview with Jack Ruby, and pledged to “break” the JFK case; Dallas police Captain Frank Martin, who witnessed Oswald slaying and told the Warren Commission, “There’s a lot to be said but probably be better if I don’t say it”; and Naval Lt. William Pitzer, JFK autopsy photographer, whose film contradicted the official view. He described his duty as a “horrifying experience.”
The House Select Committee on Assassinations was created, in 1979, in part, because of these deaths, and the Zapruder film (2). When this homemade film of Kennedy’s motorcade was viewed on ABC, in 1975, there was an outcry against the Warren Commission’s single-bullet, lone assassin conclusion. Although the House committee discredited the actuarial study of this unique phenomenon of dying witnesses, it was unable to come to any conclusion regarding the growing number of deaths. Moreover, the Committee said it could not make a valid actuarial study due to the broad number and types of dead persons.
How can it be that the mightiest State leader in the world is violently overthrown by about 30 men; that they had so much power and influence to cover up his murder; that they could stonewall scientific evidence and homicidal investigative procedure? They could even manufacture an unscarred single bullet, and enough stealth to then “disappear” the president’s brain so it could not be properly examined for bullet trajectory.
Then the murderers had enough “luck” that 18 material witnesses die. In all, 52 key people died within a few years: witnesses to the murder, or those overhearing telling information about the conspiracy to murder him, and players. Fourteen are verified murders, 12 died “suspiciously”, two died in shooting “accidents”, 15 in other accidents, one by drug overdose, and five by sudden heart attacks or cancer.
Among the 52 deaths were the most revealing of all the murders of two key Kennedy assassins: Sam Giancana and John Roselli. Sam had survived half-a-century of rugged Mafia infighting without getting himself harmed or killed. Yet he was murdered on June 19, 1975, the night before federal agents were to take him to Washington DC to testify before the Church Committee (US Select Senate Committee to Study Governmental Operations with Respect to International Activities), which focused on attempts to murder Fidel Castro and JFK.
At that time, Mooney was under police guard awaiting grand jury hearings regarding illegal gambling operations. Coincidentally, the two policemen were called off duty just hours before the target was murdered.
Giancana’s family is certain no mobster would have done the deed rather that it was the CIA, which feared that he might talk about Kennedy. His family is certain that Mooney would never have betrayed confidence.
Next in turn was Mooney’s main man, John Roselli. He had been called before the Church Committee on June 24 and September 22, 1975. According to Senator Frank Church, Roselli “gave us a good deal of detail.” Roselli was to appear again in July 1976, shortly after his boss was murdered. Roselli disappeared. Next month, on August 9, his dissected body was found stuffed in a chain-weighted metal drum in Dumbfounding Bay near Miami.
Now, I ask you. Is anyone to believe that the Russians not only ran Lee Harvey Oswald to murder the most powerful president in the world, in his own country far from Moscow, but also arranged for the murders or “suspicious” murders or suicides of 26 of the 52 persons directly connected to the murder of the principle victim?
Not even Newsweek has come up with that theory, yet!
CIA Chemical-Biological Warfare
We’ve gone through several United States terror operations against the Cuban government and the Cuban people—Operations 40, Mongoose, Patty, Northwoods; The Bay of Pigs, the Cuban Missile Crisis, the murder of President Kennedy. Still Cuba stood strong, and still with Russian help. So, other medicine was needed. What about germ warfare? (3)
I cite the “Los Angeles Times”, September 10, 1975: “The Central Intelligence Agency violated a presidential order for five years by keeping quantities of deadly bacterial poison capable of killing ‘many thousands of people’…CIA officials have told the [Senate investigating] committee that the poison was being held for laboratory tests, Church said. But the substances were unguarded, no tests were ever made and the poison was held in greater amounts than needed for testing.”
Among the many uses of these poisons were capsules to murder Fidel Castro and Patrice Lumumba.
Warren Hinckle and William Turner (a former FBI agent) wrote The Fish is Red (New York: Harper & Row, 1981). They state that the chemical-biological warfare against Cuba probably began under Richard Nixon’s presidential term. An early attempt to “destabilize” Cuban food crops and agricultural export income occurred in 1969-70 with deployment of futuristic weather modification technology. Planes from China Lake Naval Weapons Center, in a California desert, overflew Cuba, “seeding rain clouds with crystals that precipitated torrential rains over nonagricultural areas and left cane fields arid”. Killer flash floods resulted and export income was lost.
The September 24, 1981 “New York Times” book review wrote: “genuinely useful…in its portrayal of the C.I.A.'s creation of a kind of permanent paramilitary subculture, trained to smuggle and kill.”
Germ Warfare is the title of chapter four of my book, Backfire: The CIA’s Biggest Burn. I cite the “San Francisco Chronicle” (January 10, 1977) and “Newsday” (January 9, 1977). They reported that in 1971 the CIA turned over to Cuban exiles a virus which causes the African swine fever. Six weeks later, an outbreak of the disease occurred, resulting in the loss of 500,000 meat-producing pigs. (Backfire page 80.)
Sudden outbreaks of the African swine fever, which Cuba had never experienced before, broke out in 1971 and 1979. Other CBW diseases occurred: sogata rice blight (1971), sugar cane rust and smut (1978-9), blue tobacco mold (1979), Newcastle disease (1982), and coffee smut (1983)—all causing serious damage to crops and animals and export income. Cane disease alone caused the loss of thousands of hectares, and blue mold losses amounted to $250 million.
Message 40XPossility of learning what types of dengue is known in CubaXDetails about what virus sicknesses affect the populationXMedicinesXCuba importsXCountriesXGreetingsXJulia
Dengue fever type 2 broke out in Cuba two months after this CIA message was sent, on February 16, 1981, to María Santiesteban Loureiro. She was agent Regina to the CIA. Unknown to the CIA their Regina was already agent Any to her country’s security agency, DSE.
That attack and an earlier dengue fever, type 1, caused the deaths of 158 persons, including 101 children; 344,000 people fell sick.
(As CIA Note 2 shows, the U.S. government indirectly admits that it used chemical-biological warfare despite President Nixon claimed ban in 1969. The Deep State has its own rules. (See also Inside the Company: CIA Diary by former CIA official Philip Agee.)
Among the many CIA murder programs was MK Naomi—poison and bacteria kept at the army’s biological laboratory at Ft. Detrick, Maryland. The amount of shellfish toxin stored was capable of killing 14,000 persons. In all, they had 37 lethal or incapacitating substances. The CIA-Army was breeding mosquitoes to carry dengue fever. Much of this was revealed during congressional hearings. CIA chief William Colby testified at the Church Committee, but he could not explain why his Company had so many toxins and mosquitoes.
María Santiesteban received another CIA message asking about information concerning various infectious diseases, including hemorrhagic conjunctivitis. Before the disease could be controlled, one million people, one-tenth the population, had been affected. And because of the U.S. embargo against all trade, the medicine needed had to be bought elsewhere at higher prices.
When I conducted research for Backfire in Cuba (1987-9), I was privileged to have lengthy interviews with several of the 27 double agents, and see some material evidence of CIA subversion and terrorism. Some CIA messages, such as those sent to María Santiesteban, were included in photos and videos I saw. The DSE caught CIA official working out of the U.S. Interest Section in Havana on film as they handed spy equipment to what the Yankees thought were its Cuba agents.
(Photos and materials of CIA spies can be seen in the Cuban intelligence museum in Havana http://www.latinamericanstudies.org/espionage/spy-museum.htm)
A great deal of this material was shown on Cuban television in the July 1987 11-part series, “The CIA War Against Cuba.” The DSE had identified 179 CIA officers using false diplomatic covers working in Cuba or passing through on special missions. Cuba discovered 27 lie detector technicians, 28 communication workers and 18 collaborator “assets”.
Cuba possesses some of their apparatuses, such as coding machines CDS-501 and RS-804. The latter is designed for agent-main center communication via satellite, known as FLATSATCOM, which has a range of 30,000 kilometers.
I became close to one of those double agents, the DSE’s dean of infiltrators, Ignacio Rodríguez-Mena Castrillón. He was dean because he was a double agent the longest, 1966-87. Ignacio, like the vast majority of infiltrators, was not a professional spy but held a civilian job as a flight steward. The CIA gave him the code name Julio. He was Isidro for Cuba.
He told me that the CIA asked him to help with these germ plagues.
“The CIA was often interested in crop plagues and domestic animal
sicknesses. My handler, Nicolás, asked me in the Madrid Hotel
Sideral to get close to places where I could plant a virus. They asked
me if we carried pesticides or other chemicals on our flights, which
could combat the germ carrying mosquitoes. They wanted to know how we
combated African swine fever. They wanted to know who sold us chemicals
and what make they were. They wanted whatever I could give them so that
they could trace the producer-seller of these products, in order to
stop them from selling to us, or to sabotage them.” (Backfire,
Ignacio also told me, “Yeah, they worked us as a team to try to kill our Commander. When I was in Madrid, in April 1985, CIA officer Martin [actually Allen Cooper] told me: “’You have to try and find out, with your wife’s help, what preparations are taken when it’s known that the Commander is expected at the airport, what security measures are taken, the license the plane has, what route they’ll take, what stopovers they’ll make, and the day and time. That’s your most important task right now. When your get this information, send me a message right away with the set [RS-804] you were given.” [Backfire, pages 58-61]
The CIA was especially keen on Ignacio. He had played on a Washington Senator’s minor league professional baseball team in Florida. Ignacio was “Americanized”, so they thought. They let him recruit his wife, Mercedes. She then worked for the DSE, too. He was most useful especially because he was a Cuban civilian aircraft crew member. But they neglected to let him know that on one flight he and his wife were scheduled to take, the plane was to be exploded. Ignacio explained:
“The worst event through all those years was the brutal sabotage of Cubana Aviación CUT-1201, on October 6, 1976, in Barbados. Seventy-three people died: 57 Cubans; the rest were Koreans and Guyanese. Cuba’s entire junior fencing team died on Flight 455. Mercedes and I [would have been] among the dead.”
The couple was coming from separate flights to take Flight 455 from Barbados. But because Mercedes got sick, she wasn’t on that flight.
“My best buddy told me he’d take my place. I protested
but he insisted. His last words to me were, ‘Your woman didn’t
come. Let me take your flight.’
“That was my great friend, Ramón Ferrándiz.”
“The DC-8 took off at 17:15. The pilot radioed the tower at 17:23 for emergency landing clearing because of an explosion and fire on the plane. He turned his wings and a second blast occurred at 17:28. The plane went out of control and went down into the sea just short of land.”
“Just imagine this dirty deed! Everybody dead! All my compañeros; at least 20 colleagues were murdered. The CIA was involved in this atrocity, and here I was working with them.”
When Ignacio saw his CIA handler Nicolás again, he was livid. Nicolás protested: “’I didn’t participate in this. I didn’t know anything about it…For your peace of mind, I assure you, and headquarters told me to assure you, that from now on we will take special precautions so that you, and your wife, will not be aboard any aircraft that may be subject to an act that that.’”
To Ignacio’s outburst of indignation, the CIA man added: “’Yes, it’s true. We trained these people in explosives. We even gave them the explosives they used… [but] Listen, I didn’t have anything to do with this.’”
Ignacio grabbed a chair and hit him on the head, and slapped him in the face. But the dedicated patriot of his sovereign land bit the grit for the next 11 years until his government called him, and 26 other double agents, out of the cold.
It wasn’t Afghanistan, Libya, Iraq or any other Arab country that first blew up a commercial airplane, not even al Qaida or the Islamic State, and certainly not Russia. It was self-exiled Cuban mercenaries backed and covered up by the United States government.
Former CIA terrorist operative Luis Posada Carriles provides many details of the sabotage in his book Caminos del Guerrero (Ways of the Warrior). The CIA-backed terrorist group Coordination of United Revolutionary Organizations, of which Carriles was a member, is widely viewed as directly responsible for the bombings.
Four men were arrested in connection with the bombing, and a trial was held in Venezuela, long before Hugo Chavez. Venezuelans Freddy Lugo and Hernán Ricardo Lozano said they worked for Carriles to bomb the plane. They were sentenced to 20-year prison terms. Cuban-born Dr. Orlando Bosch was acquitted and later moved to Miami where he was treated as a hero until his death, in 2011. Carriles was imprisoned in Venezuela for eight years but escaped, presumably with CIA aid. He later entered the US and was held on charges of entering the country illegally but was released, and took on hero status in Miami despite the fact that he is on the FBI list as a terrorist. http://nsarchive2.gwu.edu/NSAEBB/NSAEBB153/
The U.S. Justice Department maintained that Dr. Bosch was responsible for at least 30 acts of sabotage inside the United States, in Cuba, Puerto Rico and Panama. It didn’t seek to imprison him, only to deport him. But the first Bush president overruled his law enforcement department.
On the day of the massacre of the passengers on the Cuban civilian aircraft Bosch and Carriles ultimate boss was CIA chief George Bush. His “dirty deeds” stood him in good enough stead to actually be voted in as the President of the United States of America.
The death-reach of USA Murder Incorporated is endless. Mexicans know this. That is why they call the U.S. embassy in their country: “La embajada de muerte”—the embassy of death.
Neither Russia or Cuba has ever attacked the US—no assassinations of presidents, no chemical-biological warfare, no sabotage of civilian aircraft and murder of passengers, no blowing up of schools or anything else inside the greatest democratic country on earth, nor have they conducted genocide against an entire people, or enslaved another entire people.
1. The first four freedoms are those in Article 1 of the first 10 amendments of the Constitution of the United States (1787), ratified in 1791.
“Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people to peaceably to assemble and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances.”
2. The Zapruder film is a silent, color motion picture sequence shot by private citizen Abraham Zapruder with a home-movie camera. He unexpectedly captured the assassination as the motorcade passed through Dealey Plaza in Dallas, Texas, on November 22, 1963. (Wikipedia summary).
It has been called the most complete film, giving a relatively clear view from a somewhat elevated position on the side from which the president’s head wound is visible. It was an important part of the Warren Commission hearings and all subsequent investigations of the assassination, and is one of the most studied pieces of film in history. Of greatest notoriety is the film’s capture of the fatal shot to Kennedy’s head when his limousine was almost in front of, and slightly below, Zapruder's position.
On March 6, 1975, on the ABC late-night television show Good Night America (hosted by Geraldo Rivera), assassination researchers Robert Groden and Dick Gregory presented the first-ever network television showing of the Zapruder home movie. The public’s response and outrage to showing led to the forming of the Hart-Schweiker investigation, and contributed to the Church Committee Investigation on Intelligence Activities by the United States, and resulted in the 1979 House Select Committee on Assassinations investigation.
In October 1964, the U.S. Government Printing Office released 26 volumes
of testimony and evidence compiled by the Warren Commission. Volume
18 of the commission’s hearings reproduced 158 frames of the Zapruder
film in black and white. However, frames 208–211 were missing,
a splice was visible in frames 207 and 212, frames 314 and 315 were
switched, and frame 284 was a repeat of 283. In reply to an inquiry,
the FBI’s J. Edgar Hoover wrote in 1965 that 314 and 315 were
switched due to a printing error, and that the error did not exist in
the original Warren Commission exhibits. In early 1967, Life released
a statement that four frames of the camera original (208–211)
had been accidentally destroyed, and the adjacent frames damaged by
a Life photo lab technician on November 23, 1963. Life released the
missing frames from the first-generation copy it had received from Zapruder
with the original.(Of the Zapruder frames outside the section used in
the commission's exhibits, frames 155–157 and 341 were also damaged
and spliced out of the camera original, but are present in the first-generation
The single-bullet theory (or magic-bullet theory, as it is commonly called by its critics) was introduced by the Warren Commission in its investigation of the assassination of President John F. Kennedy to explain what happened to the bullet that struck Kennedy in the back and exited through his throat. Given the lack of damage to the presidential limousine consistent with it having been struck by a high-velocity bullet and the fact that Texas Governor John Connally was wounded and was seated on a jumper seat half a meter in front of and slightly to the left of the president, the Commission concluded they were likely struck by the same bullet.
The theory, generally credited to Warren Commission staffer Arlen Specter (later a senator) posits that a single bullet, “Warren Commission Exhibit 399” (also known as “CE 399”), caused all the wounds to the governor and the non-fatal wounds to the president (seven entry/exit wounds in total).
According to the single-bullet theory, a three-centimeter-long copper-jacketed lead-core 6.5×52mm Mannlicher–Carcanorifle bullet fired from the sixth floor of the Texas School Book Depository passed through President Kennedy’s neck and Governor Connally’s chest and wrist and embedded itself in the Governor’s thigh. If so, this bullet traversed 15 layers of clothing, 7 layers of skin, and approximately 15 inches of tissue, struck a necktie knot, removed 4 inches of rib, and shattered a radius bone. The bullet was found on a gurney in the corridor at the Parkland Memorial Hospital, in Dallas, after the assassination. The Warren Commission found that this gurney was the one that had borne Governor Connally. This bullet became a key Commission exhibit. Its copper jacket was completely intact. While the bullet’s nose appeared normal, the tail was compressed laterally on one side.
In its conclusion, the Warren Commission found “persuasive evidence from the experts” that a single bullet caused the President's neck wound and all the wounds in Governor Connally. It acknowledged that there was a “difference of opinion” among members of the Commission “as to this probability”, but stated that the theory was not essential to its conclusions and that all members had no doubt that all shots were fired from the sixth floor window of the Depository building.
Most pro- and anti-conspiracy theorists believe the single-bullet theory is essential to the Warren Commission’s conclusion that Oswald acted alone [because] of the timing: if, as the Warren Commission found, President Kennedy was wounded sometime between frame 210 and 225 of the Zapruder film and Governor Connally was wounded in the back/chest no later than frame 240, there would not have been enough time between the wounding of the two men for Oswald to have fired two shots from his bolt-action rifle. FBI marksmen, who test-fired the rifle…concluded that the “minimum time for getting off two successive well-aimed shots on the rifle is approximately 2 and a quarter seconds” or 41 to 42 Zapruder frames.
The first preliminary report on the assassination, issued by the FBI on December 9, 1963, said: “Three shots rang out. Two bullets struck President Kennedy, and one wounded Governor Connally.” After the report was written, the FBI received the official autopsy report which indicated that the bullet that struck the president in the back had exited through his throat. The FBI had written their report partly based on an initial autopsy report written by their agents, which reflected the early presumption that that bullet had only penetrated several inches into the president’s back and had likely fallen out. The FBI concluded, therefore, that the governor had been struck by a separate bullet.
[By the time the Warren Commission commenced study of the Zapruder film] the FBI had determined that the running speed of Abraham Zapruder's camera was 18.3 frames per second, and that the Mannlicher–Carcano rifle found at the Texas School Book Depository, the presumed murder weapon, could not be fired twice in less than 2.3 seconds, or 42 frames of the Zapruder film.
When the Commission…received after February 25 higher-resolution images of the Zapruder film from Life magazine (who had purchased the film from Zapruder), it was immediately apparent that there was a timing problem with the FBI’s conclusion that three bullets had found their mark. Kennedy was observed by the Commission to be waving to the crowd to frame 205 of the Zapruder film as he disappears behind the Stemmons Freeway sign, and seems to be reacting to a shot as he emerges from behind the sign at frames 225-226, a little more than a second later. In their initial viewing of the film, Connally seemed to be reacting to being struck between frames 235 and 240.
Given the earliest possible frame at which Kennedy could have been struck (frame 205), and the minimum 42 frames (2.3 seconds) required between shots, there seemed to be insufficient time for separate bullets to be fired from the rifle. Several assistant counsels, upon viewing the film for the first time, concluded there had to be two assassins.
3. Here is a former secret document revealing that the CIA and military did develop and use CBW. While Nixon was supposed to have stopped this, there is evidence that the Deep State ignored his decision.
THE NIXON ADMINISTRATION'S DECISION TO END U.S. BIOLOGICAL WARFARE PROGRAMS
Volumne III: BIOWAR
The documents included in this briefing book shed light upon the decision made by President Richard M. Nixon in 1969 to end all U.S. offensive biological (and chemical) weapons programs, as well as upon the history of the U.S. program. Remarkably, neither Nixon nor Henry A. Kissinger, his National Security Advisor at the time, makes any mention of this decision in their memoirs.
As subsequent revelations made clear, continued classified biological warfare programs did continue, and the ordered destruction of biological and toxin agents was not as thorough as first believed. Judith Miller, Stephen Engelberg and William Broad book, Germs: Biological Weapons and America's Secret War, Simon & Schuster, 2001, details the subsequent history of U.S. classified research on biological warfare agents. One critical piece was provided by the Church Committee investigations into the activities of the CIA in 1975. As detailed in the committee hearings (see Document 25 ) and discussed in Germs, these hearings revealed that the CIA had long been involved in stockpiling biological agents for use in assassination attempts on foreign leaders, most notably Cuba’s Fidel Castro, and had worked closely with Ft. Detrick in this program between 1952 and 1970. Equally troubling was the evidence that the CIA had maintained a small stockpile of biological agents and toxins in violation of Nixon's ban that were capable of sickening or killing millions of people. Among this stockpile was 100 grams of anthrax, as well as smallpox, Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis virus, salmonella, and clostridium botulinum, or botulism germs.
Miller-Engelberg-Broad’s article “U.S. Germ Warfare Research Pushes Treaty Limits” in the Times on September 4, 2001, described a series of secret U.S. biological warfare experiments and programs conducted under the Clinton and Bush administrations, including a Pentagon plan to engineer genetically a potentially more deadly version of anthrax, and concerns that these programs might violate the 1972 treaty banning the development or acquisition of biological weapons.
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